Honolulu Chapter

Archive for January, 2018

“…Philosopher William Lane Craig thus explains, “suppose something could come into being from nothing. If that were the case then it is inexplicable why just anything and everything doesn’t pop into being out of nothing. But no-one here tonight is worried that while you’re listening to this debate a horse may have popped into being uncaused out of nothing in your living room, and is there defiling the carpet right now as we speak…”

Source: How Atheism Fails To Explain A Beginning To The Universe | Reasons for Jesus

“IOWA CITY, Iowa — A federal judge appointed to the bench by then-President Barack Obama has issued a temporary injunction in favor of a Christian group at the University of Iowa that had been de-recognized for not allowing a student to serve in a leadership position because he refused to adhere to the group’s biblical beliefs as they pertain to sexuality…”

Source: Judge Issues Injunction Against University That Penalized Christian Club for Requiring Leaders to Refrain From Homosexual Behavior | Christian News Network

“…When gay activist Marcus Miller applied for BLinC leadership, he was disqualified because he refused to agree to BLinC’s convictions. “He expressly stated that he rejected BLinC’s religious beliefs and would not follow them,” the group explained.

Thus jilted, Miller filed a complaint with the university, claiming he was rejected because he is an openly practicing homosexual. UI, in turn, yanked BLinC’s status as a registered student group, effectively halting their activities on campus…”

Source: Christian group sues university after being booted for refusing to elect LGBT activist as leader | News | LifeSite

“Over the past few months, even years, I have been wrestling with a gnawing issue on why the church is not amenable to apologetics. This is evidenced by the overwhelming anti-intellectualism that has been plaguing the church ever since 1859 when Darwin wrote his On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life as well as other influences…”

Source: Anti-Intellectualism in the American Church is Not a Spiritual Gift | Rob Lundberg Apologetics.Com

“…She told her story in brief in a powerful ad from 2013. “Most of you won’t recognize me, or my real name,” she says in the ad. “It’s Norma McCorvey. I’m also known as Jane Roe.”

Yes, that Jane Roe – the young woman who was supposedly raped, and who was supposedly seeking the illegal abortion that she petitioned the Supreme Court to let her have.

The only problem? She wasn’t raped. She was told to lie about that by the pro-abortion activists who used a confused and impressionable young woman to achieve their aims…”

Source: Woman behind Roe v. Wade: Helping legalize abortion was ‘the biggest mistake of my life’ | Blogs | LifeSite

“…Last week, we featured a list of books for parents to read to equip themselves with the tools they need to teach their children apologetics. Below is a list of books that elementary age children can read on their own! My daughters have read the majority of them so they are kid-tested!…”

Source: Truthbomb Apologetics: Apologetics Books for Elementary Age Children to Read

“…The actual comparisons between the species have contradicted the common descent pattern over and over. It is, as we have documented so many times, not even close. If evolution predicts the common descent pattern, then by modus tollens, evolution is false.”

Source: Two Evolutionists Inadvertently Demolish Evolution | Evolution News

“…It’s “logically impossible” for Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to consider himself Catholic and pro-abortion, Ottawa Archbishop Terrence Prendergast wrote. He made this point in an Ottawa Sun editorial slamming the Liberal government’s requirement that employers sign a pro-abortion, pro-transgender attestation for summer jobs grants…”

Trudeau is a ridiculous, pretty-boy joke, in my humble opinion.

Source: Archbishop to Trudeau: You’re ‘confused’ if you think you can be pro-abortion and Catholic | News | LifeSite

“…Whether it’s through one of my online book read along groups, private emails, blog comments, Facebook messages, or at speaking events, when parents reach out to me about their kids walking away from faith, their words are laced with painful sadness and a sense that they in some way failed…”

Source: 5 Regrets You Don’t Want to Have If Your Kids Walk Away from Faith

“Philosophy is an important academic discipline and there are many great, professional Christian Case Makers who work in the field. Alvin Plantinga, William Lane Craig, J. P. Moreland, Paul Copan; the list is large and growing. One area of examination for these philosophers is the topic of “epistemology”, the study of “knowledge” and “justified belief”. How can any of us know that something is true? What is the difference between “knowledge” and “justification” and how is evidence used to determine the truth?..”

Source: If You’ve Served On A Jury, You’re Already A Good Epistemological Philosopher | Cold Case Christianity

“In the movie, God’s Not Dead 2, I was asked to defend the historicity of Jesus and the eyewitness reliability of the Gospels. As a skeptic, I believed that the story of the Resurrection was either a late distortion (a legend) created by Christians well after the fact, or a conspiratorial lie on the part of the original Apostles. It wasn’t until I started working homicides (and homicidal conspiracies in particular) that I decided an Apostolic conspiracy was unreasonable…”

Source: Did the Apostles Lie So They Could Die as Martyrs? | Cold Case Christianity

“…In fact, most of the issues Venema raises have to do with whether various aspects of biology could evolve, not whether they did evolve. Just because something could evolve doesn’t mean it did so. And the aspects of biology he’s discussing say very little about whether human mental and intellectual capacities, such as those many believe first appeared with Adam and Eve, can arise via blind evolutionary mechanisms…”

Source: Hmm, Much of Dennis Venema’s Adam and the Genome Isn’t About Adam and the Genome | Evolution News

“Evangelical and other Christian groups across Bolivia are being put on high alert amid warnings that a new law could ban religious groups from sharing their faith, according to Evangelical Focus.

The National Association of Evangelicals in Bolivia (ANDEB) is warning a change in the Penal Code amounted to ‘state abuse’ against Christians because it could make evangelising a crime. The new law brackets criminal groups with religious organisations and bans people trying to ‘recruit’ others to take part in ‘armed conflicts or religious or worship organisations’…”

Source: Evangelicals ‘deeply worried’ as Bolivia cracks down on Christian meetings | Christian News on Christian Today

“…Leibniz formalised all this into his famous Principle of Sufficient Reason: Everything that exists has a sufficient reason for its existence, either in an external cause, or in the necessity of its own nature. This principle is widely recognized as powerful and intuitive. And is, moreover, the way every rational person already thinks—even in the most extraordinary of cases. Suppose that you saw an adult horse materialise out of thin air. You would first seek a physical cause (“It is the work of an illusionist”) or, failing that, a psychological cause, (“I am hallucinating”) or, failing that, a supernatural cause (“It is an act of God”). As a last resort, you might simply give up and admit that you don’t know the cause, whatever it is, but what you would never do is conclude that, “There is no cause…”

Source: Thinking Matters | The Cosmological Argument

“…By putting together probabilities for each of these design features occurring by chance, we can calculate the probability of the existence of a planet like Earth. This probability is 1 chance in 1099. Since there are estimated to be a maximum of 1023 planets in the universe (10 planets/star, see note below), by chance there shouldn’t be any planets capable of supporting life in the universe (only one chance in 1076). Design or random chance?..”

Source: The Incredible Design of the Earth and Our Solar System | Rich Deem | Reasoned Cases for Christ

“…Academy Award-winning actor Jon Voight and actor/producer Nick Loeb are involved in the making of “Roe v. Wade: The Movie,” along with Alveda King, the niece of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and other pro-life leaders.

This week, Loeb told World News Daily that he believes the social media giant is censoring them because of the film’s pro-life message and its exposure of Planned Parenthood’s eugenic history…”

Source: Facebook Blocks Crowdfunding Page for Actors Jon Voight and Nick Loeb and Their New Roe v. Wade Movie | LifeNews.com

“…As Stephen C. Meyer describes in Signature in the Cell, there isn’t a single example anywhere in the history of the universe in which information came from anything other than an intelligent source. Information is coded by the writer and decoded by the reader; when we see specific information, we can trust that an intelligent writer is involved. When we see information in DNA, guiding the formation of proteins and molecular machines within organisms, the most reasonable inference is the existence of an intelligent writer…”

Source: Three Evidences That Point to Intelligent Interaction | Cold Case Christianity

“…This increasing solar luminosity poses a threat to Earth’s life, which can survive only about a one percent change in incident sunlight (and the heat it brings). Life’s survival depended on some kind of thermostat. A semi-periodic cycle of extinction events followed by speciation events served that purpose. The extinction events removed life-forms less reflective of sunlight and less able at removing greenhouse gases from Earth’s atmosphere, which trap the Sun’s heat. The speciation events that followed introduced new life-forms more efficient in removing greenhouse gases and more reflective of sunlight…”

Source: Responding to Naturalistic Explanations for Life’s History on Earth

“…If you’re a Christian trying to make the case for what you believe, recognize that your jury is filled with all three kinds of people, and only the first group will probably be willing to listen to your presentation. I’ve discovered most people actually fall into the third category; their willful resistance to the truth actually prevents them from fairly examining the case for Christianity. Frank Turek offers an excellent example of this in his “I Don’t Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist” presentation. As part of his four step argument, he engages the issue of miracles, and offers a brief example of how a volitional presupposition can actually prevent you from recognizing a miracle, even if one occurred in your own life…”

Source: Why Some People Simply Will Not Be Convinced | Cold Case Christianity

“On this episode of ID The Future, biologist Ann Gauger, CSC Director of Science Communications, discusses a big new anthology she contributed to and helped edit, Theistic Evolution. Gauger discusses the reception that the new book recently received at the Evangelical Theological Society meeting, and gives an overview of the book. In her conversation with host Sarah Chaffee, the two home in on the anthology’s contribution from leading chemist James Tour and the problems that synthetic chemistry pose for modern evolutionary theory. Gauger also summarizes a nano-tech breakthrough Tour’s research team has made in cancer research.”

Source: An Overview of Theistic Evolution: A Scientific, Philosophical and Theological Critique | Multimedia Library

“…Christians are never permitted to advance or belittle the murder of innocent lives. Instead, we are called to spearhead a movement that emphasizes love, compassion and justice for the least among us.The March for Life 2018 theme is “Love Saves Lives.” It’s my favorite theme so far, as it reminds me of the One who knew me even before I was formed in my mother’s womb (Jeremiah 1:5). The One who loved me so much that He sacrificed His only beloved Son so that I could be saved from death and adopted into His family (John 3:16)…”

Source: Why I March? To Reject Pro-Abortion Christianity | The Stream

“…Don’t be fooled. If it’s difficult for us, it is great big wall for random bumbly evolution. Doug Axe and others have written about that. The truth is, if it takes a lot of design effort now, it probably took a lot of design effort before. Moreoever, Dr. Baker acknowledges that the kind of proteins we can make are much shorter than many that exist in nature, and we aren’t really at the stage of making molecular machines, so it’s not yet clear at all whether we will be able to do better than those primordial designs…”

Source: Evolution News: Don’t be fooled by protein design claim | Uncommon Descent

“…I’d like to think that any adult worth their salt would want to throttle the adults who allowed a 10-year-old boy to dress in full drag queen garb. They would fear for that child’s life and soul. I’d like to believe that. But I can’t anymore.I can’t because it seems to be the next demand of the “LGBTQIxyz” agenda: celebrate and encouraging the queering of our children.

Don’t try to tell me this isn’t being done on purpose. This is just the next piece in the puzzle, the next envelope to be pushed, the next frontier to be blazed. The next frontier after that? Decriminalize and then normalize pedophilia as just another “orientation” that is common to human beings and thus, normal…”

Source: Don’t Celebrate Kids in Drag | The Stream

“…In The Mysterious Flame, Philosopher Colin McGinn explains why evolution fails to explain consciousness:But in the case of consciousness the Darwinian explanation does not tell us what we need to know, for the simple reason that it is unclear how matter can be so organized as to create a conscious being. The problem is in the raw materials. It looks as if with consciousness a new kind of reality has been injected into the universe, instead of just a recombination of the old realities. Even if minds showed no hint of design, the same old problem would exist: How can mere matter originate consciousness? How did evolution convert the water of biological tissue into the wine of consciousness?..”

Source: 3 Failed Naturalistic Attempts at Explaining Consciousness – Sean McDowell

“…Those words are not God’s Word. It is Mr. Ham telling me to start with God’s Word. Thus, if one can start with Mr. Ham’s words, then Mr. Ham is violating his own principle making his position false. Moreover, is the idea that “all evidence must be interpreted based on a [worldview]” a product of Mr. Ham’s worldview-driven interpretation, or is it true across worldviews? If it is true across worldviews, then at least that fact is “worldveiw neutral,” again making Mr. Ham’s position false. What about the laws of logic? Do those differ according to someone’s worldview or are they “worldview neutral”? Here’s a hint: if you answer that logic differs across worldviews, then you are actually using logic to say it is true for all worldviews that logic differs across worldviews. I trust the reader can see the contradiction…”

Source: Does Ken Ham’s Defense of Biblical Authority Lead to Biblical Skepticism? | SES

“Around Dateline, we had a phrase to describe J Warner Wallace: ‘The Evidence Whisperer.’ He would come up with some unlikely bit of long neglected flotsam, realize it was key evidence, and work it until he’d wrung out every possible lead. Jim helped bring cases to court, and our stories to life. And when I discovered he enjoys debating religious questions with an inquisitive guy like me? Well that was true joy. Mind you, we agree about almost nothing. But in this book he makes his case as always with verve and charm …just like my friend Jim.” – Keith Morrison, News Correspondent, Dateline (NBC).

Source: The J. Warner Wallace Dateline Collection | Cold Case Christianity

“…The New Mexico Attorney General won’t investigate his state’s flagship university and a late-term abortion facility for selling baby body parts, despite an ongoing FBI inquiry, the urging of a Congressional committee, and the suspension of a university researcher for her involvement in the “transfer” of body parts.New Mexico Attorney General Hector Balderas, a Democrat, informed the U.S. House Select Investigative Panel on Infant lives he wasn’t interested in pursuing the case via a letter on January 4, 2018…”

Source: Pro-lifers furious New Mexico attorney general won’t investigate baby parts sales | News | LifeSite

“A thoughtful reader on Facebook asked me if Truthbomb had a “Top 10″ Book List.  I confessed that we did not, but agreed to put one together…so, here you go!

Please keep in mind that these books are aimed toward parents who desire to train their kids to understand what they believe and why they believe it.  Further, it should be noted that these are NOT in any special order…”

Source: Truthbomb Apologetics: Truthbomb’s Top 10 Books Every Christian Parent Should Read

“…It seems that many churches and many Christians have unfortunately bought into an unbiblical definition of “faith” where faith and facts do not mix. So it would mean that faith and reason are enemies. This is demonstrably false and unbiblical, although it is wildly popular…”

Source: Is Philosophy Dangerous For Christians? – Faithful Apologetics

“…Alabama’s stunning come-from-behind NCAA championship victory over Georgia was fueled by freshman quarterback Tua Tagovailoa. In a remarkably humble interview after the game, especially given what he’d just accomplished on national television, he said: “I would like to thank my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. With him all things are possible…”

Source: Alabama’s Big Win

“…If they think that logic and reason are unreliable because “logic and reason is due to chemical compositions in the brain,” then ask them, “How did you arrive at that conclusion?” If they used logic and reason, then their assertion defeats itself. If they did not, why believe what they say? These poor, deluded souls are mired in incoherence and don’t even realize it…”

Source: William Lane Craig on “If Mind is Reducible to Brain Function, Why Trust Thought?”

“…Each of these proteins operates in the dark, jostling interior of a cell, and yet has an uncanny sense of what it needs to do and where it needs to be. Each one cooperates with other proteins, sometimes coordinating the actions of large numbers of them. Daple never hears the band concert. Adult stem cells never feel a hot shower. Proteasomes never taste a holiday dinner. Without a brain or a mind to guide them, these machines work as if they have a higher purpose that calls for their skills, even though that purpose transcends their own microscopic existence. The effect is the health of an entirely different entity that is orders of magnitude larger than the protein — the human body.It takes phenomenal programming to make a machine imitate a person. These molecular machines, silently fulfilling their coded instructions, come pretty close to passing the Turing test.”

Source: Some Proteins Act Almost Like Humans | Evolution News

Tell me this isn’t Intelligent Design:

“…After bacterial invasion, the researchers discovered that platelets migrate to the site of infection and patrol the area, gathering the bacteria, trapping them, and then bundling them into groups. Chemicals released from the bacteria during this process stimulate the phagocytic neutrophils to report to the location, where they are able to quickly capture and ingest the trapped bundles of bacteria and kill them, certainly a much more efficient process than chasing down and gobbling up one bacteria at a time.The upshot? The body is pretty cool. It always amazes me that something we observe in life as a process, like a dog rounding up sheep or cattle so it’s easier for the rancher, is replicated inside us!..”

Source: Platelets and Neutrophils Double-Team Invading Bacteria – Regenexx®

“WASHINGTON, D.C. – FEMA is now accepting disaster aid applications from houses of worship damaged by Hurricane Harvey, a result of lawsuits brought by three Texas churches and two Florida synagogues seeking equal access to relief grants. In Harvest Family Church v. FEMA, and Chabad of Key West v. FEMA, Harvest Family Church, Hi-Way Tabernacle, and Rockport First Assembly of God and Chabad of Key West and Chabad of the Space Coast, respectively, sued FEMA for denying houses of worship access to federal disaster aid grants on equal footing with secular non-profits (watch their story). FEMA announced houses of worship can now apply for disaster relief aid through February 4…”

Source: Harvey-hit houses of worship now free to apply for FEMA aid – Becket

“…As Tim Stratton argues in his Freethinking Argument, in a deterministic world, there is no true thought or rationality. These things are based on the ability to analyze data, weigh evidence, and select the best conclusion.After all, if you think free will is a lie, how did you come to that conclusion? Did you survey the evidence and freely choose to accept determinism? I hope you see how absurd that is. If there is no free will, you did not rationally come to believe that. You were determined to accept it, just like everything else you think and believe. You never came to freely believe in anything; you were merely determined to do so…”

Source: The Price of Denying Free Will | CrossExamined.org

“…In the end, we need to dispense with the complaint that there’s no possible way to look at various religious claims and find the truth. For those that have an open mind and do the homework, it can be a rewarding experience. When I took this approach, I arrived at the following conclusion:1. A miracle is an act of God that confirms a messenger from God.

2. Jesus offered a cumulative case that confirms He is the incarnation of the God of Israel—His fulfillment of prophecy, His sinless life, His messianic actions/messianic miracles, His speaking authority, and His miraculous resurrection.

3. Therefore, Jesus offered several lines of evidence that  confirm that He is the incarnation of the God of Israel.”

Source: Why Christians Can’t Avoid Being Evidentialists – THINKAPOLOGETICS.COM

“…One of the claims Venema makes in his book is that the effective population size of our last common ancestor with chimps has never been fewer than 10,000. In fact, he equates the certainty of that statement with our certainty about heliocentrism. That is an extreme claim that needs justification…”

Source: Does Science Rule Out a First Human Pair?… – Biologic Institute

“…Immersed in the gay lifestyle from age fifteen, Emily Thomes’ life was transformed when she encountered the real God.Rebellious from an early age, Emily’s actions led her into immoral choices.  “I met my need for attention by constantly ‘going against the grain,’” she explains online and in a viral video released last week.

“I partied, slept around, and by fifteen I came out as a lesbian to some friends,” Emily continued in the Anchored North-produced video.  “I cut my hair short, wore boy clothes, and used men’s bathrooms and dressing rooms…”

Source: Viral video: Woman explains why she left ‘super wild’ lesbian lifestyle to follow Christ | News | LifeSite

“Americans are being lied to every day. Popular culture tells us that deep thinking and reflective living is pointless. Instead, we must move faster. We need faster cars, faster food, and faster computers—now. We need more things, more toys, more power, and more perks. We need more hair (if baldness threatens), but we don’t need more knowledge or more wisdom. We need less wrinkles (hence Botox parties) and less pounds, but not less vices (as long as we can get away with them). Our media are dominated by celebrities who are not wise, learned or godly people. They are usually over-paid and ego-driven athletes or movie stars. Next to nothing in popular culture encourages us to slow down and cultivate a contemplative life before the God “in whom we live and move and have our being” (Acts 17:28). Instead we are tempted to believe that God has nothing to do with our most valued activities and dreams. We can do fine without him. Or, we may redefine the God of the Bible and godly religion to fit our designer preferences. Either way, worldliness reigns, world applauds, and the mind is deadened…”

Source: How Christians Can Take Back Their Minds – Douglas Groothuis, Ph.D.

“…When it comes to leadership, men and women can do and say the exact same thing; the man will be seen as a strong leader, and the woman will be viewed as a [word I don’t say in polite company.] However, this exact same phenomenon is true on the flip side; there are a lot of harsh truths that people will more readily hear from a woman than they will a man. Why is that? Is it because we are less intimidating? Is it because we intuitively know how to soften the blow? Is it because I’m 5’2” and it’s hard for someone to really take me seriously? Who knows. All I know is that if a man and a woman both say something harsh with love, the love is often more readily perceived coming from a woman than it is from a man...”

Source: Yes, Women Need Apologetics, But More Importantly, Apologetics Needs Women

“…A couple years later, after completing my doctoral thesis, Prof. Hick came to me prior to my orals and confided, “I gave your thesis to a member of the physics department to evaluate the physical evidence you present for the beginning of the universe.”  He paused and then said, “He said that it’s completely correct.”I said, “I know it is!”

He replied, “Why don’t the theologians know about this?…”

The wages of churchianity isolationism!

Source: What Interested You in the Kalām Cosmological Argument? | Reasonable Faith


My thanks to Cross Examined for publishing this sample chapter from my book [‘What Your Atheist Professor Doesn’t Know (But Should)’]: The “Hardware” of Life Argument http://ow.ly/lTU230hCLjE

Source: The “Hardware” of Life Argument

“About two in five Americans report going to worship services on a weekly basis. But church isn’t always the easiest commitment to make on an early Sunday morning. While church offers obvious spiritual benefits, did you know studies have found it’s good for your physical and mental health too? Here are five surprising benefits of attending church…”

Source: 5 Surprising Scientific Reasons to Attend Church | LightWorkers

“…The ancient clay seal found near the Western Wall dates to the First Temple Period and mentions the governor of the city. The Old Testament refers to the position of governor in Jerusalem during that time, a role appointed by the king. Thus, this discovery appears to be yet another in a long line of archaeological finds corroborating the accuracy and historicity of the Bible,” he said….”

Source: Discovery of Clay Seal From First Temple Period Viewed as Another Support of Biblical Text | Christian News Network

“…Despite the recent Stalinesque airbrushing of eminent German paleontologist Günter Bechly from Wikipedia for advocating intelligent design, ID’s worldwide influence is growing. My wife Lucy and I just returned from Brazil, the world’s fifth largest and sixth most populous country, where ID is flourishing.Twenty-five years ago, Brazilian historian of science (and former Marxist-Leninist) Enézio E. de Almeida Filho became skeptical of Darwinism — not because of the Bible, but because of the scientific evidence against it. Enézio (who goes by the nickname Neddy) also read Phillip Johnson’s Darwin on Trial. Neddy started a blog, Desafiando a Nomenklatura Científica (“Defying the Scientific Nomenklatura”), and in 1998 the Brazilian ID movement was born…”

Source: Intelligent Design Is Flourishing in Brazil | Evolution News

“I’ve noticed something. There are a lot of bad ideas out there. You’ve probably noticed it too. I’ve also noticed something else. Most of these bad ideas can be exposed with one of two tactics: Taking the Roof Off or the Suicide Tactic…”

Source: Two Tactics to Rule Them All | Stand to Reason

“…Inherit the Wind – Not History

The play (and the subsequent 1960 movie with Spencer Tracy) proved immensely popular at the time. However, there are some real problems with the events in the way the play presents them. While the broad points are the same, the play changes so many details that the authors acknowledged their play isn’t history. In the play’s preface they wrote:

Inherit the Wind is not history. The events which took place in Dayton, Tennessee, during the scorching July of 1925 are clearly the genesis of this play. It has, however, an exodus entirely its own…”


Source: The Blow-Hard Bias of Inherit the Wind | Come Reason’s Apologetics Notes

A great response to this question:

“Dear Dr. Craig, thank you for your great work at Reasonable Faith. My question is one borne from a sense of sadness and resentment towards God for His seemingly indifferent attitude to my pain. I have struggled for years with bad eyesight and floaters in my eyes, (especially my left eye), and it really does affect my daily activities like reading and writing etc. I have been praying almost constantly for healing and restoration but have been met with a devastating silence.I happen to know that you yourself suffer from a muscular problem, and would like to hear your personal journey through that. Can you relate to my problems? Have you ever asked God to heal you? Did you feel bitter when He did not? How did you continue believing in His goodness and love?

Also, did you experience, like I have, the Church telling you that if you are not healed it is because of your lack of faith or because of unconfessed sin? This teaching in particular is especially devastating to my own faith.

God Bless you



Source: Dealing with Physical Ailment | Reasonable Faith